Friday, June 5, 2020
Nature conflicts bring a character face to face with Mother NatureÃ¢â¬â¢s power. Seeing how a character responds to this can lay bare their deepest values, motivations, and fears, leading to a rich, character-driven story.
Sunday, May 17, 2020
Haiti is located in Central America, and is also bordered by the Caribbean Sea. The size of the country is comparable to the state of Maryland in the United States; however, it is marginally smaller. As of July 2016, the estimated population was 10,485,800. (CIA) Haiti is probably most well known for being the location where a devastating earthquake hit. This earthquake took place in 2010, and it killed more than 200,000 people. (BBC News) The earthquake completely destroyed not only the land, but also the economy. I chose this country because I was curious to find out exactly how the earthquake affected the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s economy. I also chose this country because not a whole lot of people talk about Haiti, and I donÃ¢â¬â¢t really know anythingÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦They were losing money, because they were just handing the rice out for free. It also put local businesses out of business because people werenÃ¢â¬â¢t going there and paying to get rice. Instead, they were getting it for free. As the import issue gets fixed, things will start going back to normal and people will start paying cash for their food. Relief agencies were going to transition into handing out food vouchers for the people to use to get their rice. (Frontline) This could be good, but if you hand out too many and increase demand a lot at the same time there is limited supply; moreover, this could cause prices to increase tremendously. This would then cause inflation. As the ports are being fixed, then rice wholesalers can get their rice, sell it to vendors, which can then sell rice to wholesalers on the street, and then finally sell food on the streets. (Frontline) As a result of this, the prices will then decrease. Economic Costs are payments that every country has to involve in their economy. Violent crime is a conflict that most people may not think affects a countryÃ¢â¬â¢s economic status. Every country has some form of security to keep the population safe, and to try and limit the amount of crimes committed throughout the country. Security is a necessity; however, it requires money to keep the system going. When a country like Haiti has to have lots of security, that requires what is calledShow MoreRelatedUnited Arab of Emirates Country Notebook18844 Words Ã |Ã 76 Pagesshares significant aspects of its culture with neighboring Arab countries and the larger Arab culture. II- Geographical Setting: A- Location The UAE is situated in the Southeast of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia on the Persian Gulf , is bordered on the north by the Persian Gulf and Iran , on the East by Oman , and on the South and West by Saudi Arabia sharing sea borders with Iraq, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, Iran. The UAE covers 32,278 square miles (83,600 square kilometers). The Seven EmiratesRead MoreUnited Arab of Emirates Country Notebook18844 Words Ã |Ã 76 Pagesshares significant aspects of its culture with neighboring Arab countries and the larger Arab culture. II- Geographical Setting: A- Location The UAE is situated in the Southeast of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia on the Persian Gulf , is bordered on the north by the Persian Gulf and Iran , on the East by Oman , and on the South and West by Saudi Arabia sharing sea borders with Iraq, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, Iran. The UAE covers 32,278 square miles (83,600 square kilometers). The Seven EmiratesRead MoreOne Significant Change That Has Occurred in the World Between 1900 and 2005. Explain the Impact This Change Has Made on Our Lives and Why It Is an Important Change.163893 Words Ã |Ã 656 PagesPast, edited by Susan Porter Benson, Stephen Brier, and Roy Rosenzweig Also in this series: Paula Hamilton and Linda Shopes, eds., Oral History and Public Memories Tiffany Ruby Patterson, Zora Neale Hurston and a History of Southern Life Lisa M. Fine, The Story of Reo Joe: Work, Kin, and Community in Autotown, U.S.A. Van Gosse and Richard Moser, eds., The World the Sixties Made: Politics and Culture in Recent America Joanne Meyerowitz, ed., History and September 11th John McMillian and Paul
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
For many years, children growing up in a single parent family have been viewed as different. Being raised by only one parents seems impossible to many yet over the decade it has become more common. story of single parent women named Riya. whose Husband dead in an accident in 1998. She has three kids and they all were teenagers by the time when her husband dead. And she was uneducated and didnÃ¢â¬â¢t get any work to do. Though single parent households that include only of either mother or father do the best they can to support their children. There are some negative effects to not having a well-rounded home life. By todayÃ¢â¬â¢s generation, most of the single parents are facing very hard life because living in poverty is very stressful and can haveÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Working for long hours, working hard and not giving enough time to children is another way of making your children to feel lonely. Moreover, to say that most of the single parents are becoming the reason of childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s emotional problems because of low parenting quality. However, Riya worked hard for family and her children but she couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t make any special day to sit or her enough time to the childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s. in fact, their way or parents suffer is more likely being busy with their work to complete childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s finical things such as school fees, tuition fess etc. These things may make parents to miss childÃ¢â¬â¢s school functions or any other special event where the child needs their parents to be with. As shown above, these things prove a low parenting quality and child may suffer from emotional problems or some interpersonal things. Children wonÃ¢â¬â¢t be able to share their personals or wonÃ¢â¬â¢t be open to talk about their problems because parents donÃ¢â¬â¢t give them their time. The change is parenting status is a difficult change for child to accept and even if parent try at trying their best to make the children to understand can sometime rebound the relation. Furthermore, having said that single parentÃ¢â¬â¢s way or parenting their children can be worse or risky for their childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s life as well their own life. If they cannot make themselves equal to two parentÃ¢â¬â¢s qualities of parenting for a child. RiyaÃ¢â¬â¢s life has been destroyed by the age when her children grown up butShow MoreRelatedThe Impact Of Single Parenting On Children1494 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesexplains the impact of single parenting on children in the Unites States .Over the years the Ã¢â¬Å"normal familyÃ¢â¬ form has changed due to the increase in the numbers of children born outside of marriages and the increase in divorce rates. Now many children live in households other than the two-parent household. Single-parenting is the lifestyle chosen by many parents, though the majority of single-parent households are regulated by the mother. Research shows there are many different effects on children raisedRead MoreThe New Nuclear Family: Problems Benefits in Single Parenthood804 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesFamilies supported by single parenthood are no longer viewed as nontraditional. Becoming apart of the social norm, 27% of the families in the United States are headed by only one single parent. As more single-parent families begin to emerge in North America, the public brings concern to examine the outcomes of these households for the wellbeing of children. Overall, financial difficulties and possible negative effects for children are two main issues of single-parenthood. However, a number positiveRead MoreThe Effects Of Parental Absence On Academic Achievement Of Adolescents1174 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesH. (2002). Examining the Effects of Parental Absence on the Academic Achievement of Adolescents: The Challenge of Controlling for Family Income. Journal of Family and Economic Issues 23.2, 189-210. A. The article targets the issue that how parentÃ¢â¬â¢s absence has a negative effect on the academic achievements of adolescents. It also discusses how it can be difficult for single-parents to manage family income. B. The article tells that when children lose a custodial parent, they go through drastic psychologicalRead MoreThe Effects Of Being Raised By A Single Parent1476 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesBack then they believe in the nuclear family, which is a family with a mom, dad, and children. They believe staying together at all cost. If something was breaking or broken you fixed it. At times you wonder if they stayed for love, money, or just for the sake of the children. Now and days it is not the same. Families are broken up for many reasons. Rather it be by death, the other parent wanting out (such as divorce). But in the end there is always a single parent left to take care of the kids in mostRead MoreSingle Parent Families Put Many Mental Effects on their Children1058 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesS. Census Bureau, claimed that out of 12.2 million single parent families in 2012, more than 80% were single mother parents. For a long time, there are many children that have grown up in a single-parent hom e. Kids who are raised by one parent seems almost impossible to them but have become more common in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society. Regardless of the situation, children who grow up in a household with one biological parent instead of two biological parents are often more susceptible to risks that can be harmfulRead MoreThe Main Reason For Collapsing Of Roman Empire And America843 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAmerica because the rate of single-parent families is rising and the greed in the corporations or organizations is increased as the same as Rome. Like the moral value decline in Rome was caused by the fall of father role in the families, America have been suffering from the moral decline because of the rise in the single-parent families. The rise in the single-parent families is the same kind of the fall of father authority because single-mothersÃ¢â¬â¢ rate is increased than the single-fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s rate. ThereRead MoreThe Consequences For A Child1446 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesChild in a Single Parent Household It is a well-known fact that single parent families provide less than optimal environments for raising children regardless of the country. The quality of parenting is less when compared to those children who live at home with both of their parents. According to Nicholson, DÃ¢â¬â¢Esposito, Lucas, and Westrupp (2014), they suggested there is strong evidence emphasizing how children in single-parent fare more poorly when compared to children in two-parent families, which includesRead MoreSingle Parent Education Program : Single Parenthood Is Becoming An Epidemic1146 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesSingle Parent Education Program Single parenthood is becoming an epidemic. According to Mullis Mullis one in five families with children under the age of five is a one-parent family (Mullis Mullis, 2013). With the rise of single parent households it is essential that families are equipped with the proper tools to navigate single parenthood. My goal for my parent education program involves equipping single parent families with the tools necessary to raise competent adults. Attachment Theory andRead MoreSingle Parent Effect On Children s Well Being1219 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesMarch 2017 Single Parent effect on Children s well being Raising a child on your own can be very challenging at times and can also cause negative effects on the child. Years ago in the United States it was common for everyone to go for the american dream. The dream that involves two parents, children, golden retrievers and the white picket fence in front of the house. However, today in America raising children on your own has become a lot more popular. Since 1960, single parent families have moreRead MoreChildren s Development And Effective Parenting Essay1400 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesdiversity including, poverty, family form, and children with disabilities. Throughout these discussion papers our roles as educators when working with children and their families within each of these areas of diversity are addressed. These papers unpack inclusive practices for working with young children and their families with differing abilities from a range of socio-economic backgrounds. In Aotearoa New Zealand we live in a society where some children and families live in poverty, the most common
Question: To what extent does Risk Management in Construction Projects have beneficial effects on emerging Countries' Economies? Answer: Introduction: Development and construction has a considerable impact on the economic growth and sustainability of a country. However, construction projects are associated with major risk factors as well, and in case those risk scenarios are not managed accordingly. The detrimental impact of risk consequences on the economic growth of the country can be extreme as well. It can be mentioned in this context that the impact of faulty construction risk management is even more profound on the emerging countries. It must not escape notice that in case of emerging countries the developmental progress contributes handsomely to the economic stability (Fellows Liu, 2012). Hence, this paper will argue that optimal and adequate risk management activities in case of the construction companies contribute the economic growth and stability of the emerging companies in terms of time and manpower management, cost management, procurement, opportunity identification and sustainable environment-friendly developmental goals. Body section 1: Risk management in construction aids in optimal cost management: Cost management can be considered the most direct advantage of construction project risk management; however, in certain circumstances the individual expense for the risk management procedure itself threatens the financial limit of the project itself (Fellows Liu, 2012). Although, risk management avoids many financial risks that can eventually help in maintaining the financial stability of the project (Merrow, 2011). The developmental construction projects are considered to be one of the greatest contributing factors behind the developing economy of the entire nation. Although the magnanimous developmental projects require adequate funding and time devoted to the project as well. In case of an emerging country, the optimal utilization of the resources utilized for the developmental projects is crucial for economic stability of any emerging country. Hwang and Ng (2013) stated that the construction industry can be considered as a highly heterogeneous and extremely complex associated with a number of risks and difficulties that can prove to be excruciating hurdles in the path of optimal economical development of a developing country. As there are various hazard risks associated with the construction projects, the possibilities of the hazards sabotaging the resources utilized for the construction projects are extremely high. Merrow (2011), has opined that adequate risk management activities can be ex tremely helpful in safeguarding the monetary expense invested by a national government in a particularly large developmental construction project. For example, there are various softwares like @Risk, Risk+, PERTmaster project risks and Predict, which has been noted to ease the risk management procedure in an efficient manner (Zwikael Ahn, 2011). Although, it can be stated that the extra resources invested in the extensive risk management procedures can be a significant impact to the financial standing of the project (Merrow, 2011). Body section 2: Risk management in construction helps in time and manpower management: One of the most effective forms of risk management in construction projects in emerging countries is time and manpower, although in all circumstances, general risk management procedure might not result in the advantageous outcome for time and manpower management where more critical and advanced risk management is required (Qazi et al., 2016). However, it can be mentioned that utilizing software based risk management procedure like analytical hierarchy method can be beneficial in optimal time and manpower management. It can be mentioned in this context that the manpower and time invested by a nation in a rather large construction project is considerably higher. Now construction projects of such intensity can be very unpredictable in terms of successful implementation and outcome generation. Kelly, Male and Graham (2014) explained that the impact of the risk management can be considered a business process management phenomenon that takes into consideration identifying and addressing the root cause of the hazardous risks that has the potential to challenge the outcome of the particular project. Hwang and Ng (2013) agreed on this fact and explained that the risk management procedures are comprehensive and systematic and explore, evaluate, and respond to all the risk-causing elements prevalent, to successfully achieves the construction project objectives. It also needs to be addressed that the time and manpower invested by an economically backward emerging country is massive in case of such projects. A failure may cause the workers and the government a major loss, which developing countries might not be able to afford. In this sector, regular risks assessment activities utilizing analytical hierarchy procedure in all the different phases of the construction project provides an advantage to the national government. However, there are opposing arguments that indicate that utilizing the analytical hierarchy procedure is extremely time consuming and requires expertise to be successfully implemented and many of the construction companies might find using this procedure more critical than standard risk management procedures (Hwang Ng 2013). As a result, the construction authority can rectify the mistakes beforehand through adequate risk management, so that the resources like time and manpower can be saved from being wasted and can be invested in further developmental procedures to propagate the economic and developmental growth of the emerging country (Aminbakhsh, Gunduz Sonmez, 20 13). For example, in case of national construction project OHS (occupational health and safety) frameworks, when the analytical hierarchy procedure is used by the management, all the hazards that are prevalent in the construction sites that are both dependent and independent of human errors can be easily controlled or procured Body Section 3: Risk management plan can help to procure important resources for the construction work With the help of the risk management plan, it is possible to ensure that proper resources are being gathered and stored that can be used for the future purpose (Caiadoa, 2016). On the other hand, it many of the cases, it may be challenging for the construction workers to make the future perditions that are needed for the procurement of the resources. With the help of the procurement and the drafting advice that are needed as a part of the extensive work. It is important to note that each type of the construction work involves different types of resource utilization that is needed for the process of securing of the jobs. Qazi et al., (2016) discussed that one of the major aims of the project managers is to deal with the securement of resources. Schaufelberger and Holm (2017), have provided evidence about the fact that most of the resources that are being allocated for the construction work have the risks of fluctuating prices. This is more likely in the context of dealing emerging eco nomic nations. The example of Lithuanian construction company can be given in the context, which has to hire external resources for the construction project from the foreign nations at much higher cost. This has been a major cause of poor economic development of the nation, where it is not possible for the government to earn major revenues. The risk management plan in the context of procurement can thereby help to ensure high revenue income from the government sources. It can also help in the matter of resource allocation and procuring the same for the construction work. The government can also help in the process of risk mitigation and improve the chance of economic development. The example in this context can be given that most of the major construction forms partnership with the suppliers groups that help in the matters of getting resources of during the time of crisis (Schaufelberger and Holm 2017). On the other hand, it can also be said that while procuring the assets, there is also the risk of stocking resources for the future. This can increase the chance of shortages of resources during the present scenario (Schaufelberger and Holm 2017). Body Section 4: Risk management can help in the process of opportunity identification The research work of Paul and Basu (2016) discussed, the risk management and opportunity identification of the construction work is becoming more challenging in the context of the current days. This is also due to the change in the nature of the construction work and the demand for the client groups. On the other hand, there is also the chance factor that due to the poor assessment of the risk assessments, it is may not be possible to identify the proper forms of opportunities that are needed to deal with the issues of related to the construction projects. The non-homogeneous nature along with the non-serial type of production has been one of the major challenges for the construction work of the modern days. As further opportunities are being identified, it may be possible to predict all types of future risks that are associated with the work of construction. Advanced level of monitoring is being implemented that are needed to deal with the future challenges associated with the work of construction in the emerging economic nations. As future risks of the construction industry are being identified, it is possible to implement the process of long-term savings that is one of the major ways to improve upon the government economy of the nation. The opportunities are also effective in identifying the effective ways to improve upon the usage of the natural resources. Lam et al., (2017), have added in the context that due lack of availability of the natural resources in the emerging nations, they are forced to import the same from the foreign nations. This results in the loss of revenue of the private organizations within the construction industry. The risk assessment planning can help in the se curement of the resources and make proper use of the same in order to deal with the resource challenges. Here the relevant examples can be given that will help in the cases related to that of risk identification. As risks could have been identified, it is possible for the construction agencies to develop policies that can help to make full use of the opportunities (Paul and Basu 2016). It can also be said that there is high level of chance of mistakes that are involved due to poor process of risk assessment. Poor process of opportunity identification can result in false prediction for the future (Lam et al., 2017). Body Section 5: Risk assessment can help to reduce the effect of environmental degradation and thereby help in the process of improving the level of health in the society Perrenoud et al., (2017), have highlighted about the types environmental degradation that is usually caused due to the disposal of constructional wastes. The risk assessment plan can help in the management activity that are needed to deal with the issues of environmental wastages that are caused due to the construction works. One of the major examples of environmental degradation due to the construction work is that of the Dakota Access Pipeline that has received several critics due to over exploitation of the local available natural resources. The transportation of the natural oil for several miles has resulted in the environmental impact that has resulted in environmental pollution in the form of oil spilling and leakages (Hassan, 2016). Hence, in the given context, it is not possible to deal with the adverse effects of the environmental changes that are usually associated with the construction activities. For the emerging economic nations, the risk assessment plans can help to deal with the process of suitable development. There are also special protocols within the risk assessment plans that are needed to deal with the adverse effects of constructional wastes. This can be achieved with the help of implementing proper wastes disposal and treatment procedures. Here examples can be given in the forms that construction project workers use raw materials that are eco-friendly and can also be re-used in the future. In the counter argument it can be said that in order to deal with the effects of environmental degradation, the cost of construction work is increased significantly (Hassan, 2016)) Conclusion: On a concluding note, it can be stated that the risk management procedures act as saving grace for the construction companies and government authorities in saving crucial resources like time, money and manpower for the nation. And hence, optimal utilization of the resources is able to facilitate better growth and development for the nation. However, the benefits of the risk management activities are stretched further to incorporate procurement and opportunity identification. It in turn can effectively enhance the revenue statistics of the emerging country effectively. Lastly, sustainable development is a prerequisite for any of the developmental projects all across the world. Therefore, through risk management in context of environmental impact can also help in overall growth of emerging nations to the forefront of global-recognition. References: Aminbakhsh, S., Gunduz, M., Sonmez, R. (2013). Safety risk assessment using analytic hierarchy process (AHP) during planning and budgeting of construction projects.Journal of safety research,vol-46, pp.99-105. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsr.2013.05.003 Article 1, Caiadoa, R. G. G. (2016). GUIDELINES TO RISK MANAGEMENT MATURITY IN CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS. Brazilian Journal of Operations Production Management, 13(3), 372-385. Vol 13, No:3 Article 7 Doi: DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.14488/BJOPM.2016.v13.n3.a14 Fellows, R., Liu, A. M. (2012). Managing organizational interfaces in engineering construction projects: addressing fragmentation and boundary issues across multiple interfaces.Construction Management and Economics,vol-30(issue 8), pp. 653-671. Doi: 10.1080/01446193.2012.668199, Article 2, Hassan, M. K. (2016). Risk Management in Construction of Oil Industry Projects in Sudan (Doctoral dissertation, Sudan University of Science and Technology). Retrieved from: https://repository.sustech.edu/handle/123456789/13796 Hwang, B. G., Ng, W. J. (2013). Project management knowledge and skills for green construction: Overcoming challenges.International Journal of Project Management,Volume 31, Issue 2, pp. 272-284.doi: 10.1016/j.ijproman.2012.05.004 Article 3 Kelly, J., Male, S., Graham, D. (2014).Value management of construction projects. John Wiley Sons. Pp. 51-67 Retrieved from https://books.google.co.in/books?hl=enlr=id=MnTCBwAAQBAJoi=fndpg=PA239dq=Kelly,+J.,+Male,+S.,+%26+Graham,+D.+(2014).+Value+management+of+construction+projects.+John+Wiley+%26+Sons.ots=WEZ_ZTrU8asig=BF4ArO8lOWHBVALE4MM2oyjk9_Aredir_esc=y#v=onepageqf=false Lam, T. Y., Lam, T. Y., Siwingwa, N., Siwingwa, N. (2017). Risk management and contingency sum of construction projects. Journal of Financial Management of Property and Construction, 22(3), 237-251. Vol. 22 Issue: 3, pp.237-251 Doi: 10.1108/JFMPC-10-2016-0047 Merrow, E. W. (2011).Industrial megaprojects: concepts, strategies, and practices for success(Vol. 8). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. Retrieved from https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/book/10.1002/9781119201045/homepage/AuthorBiography.html Paul, V. K., Basu, C. (2016). Scenario Planning and Risk Failure Mode Effect and Analysis (RFMEA) based Management. Journal of Construction Engineering and Project Management, 6(2), 24-29. Article 8 DOI : 10.6106/JCEPM.2016.6.2.024 Volume 6, Issue 2,2016, pp.24-29 Perrenoud, A., Lines, B. C., Savicky, J., Sullivan, K. T. (2017). Using Best-Value Procurement to Measure the Impact of Initial Risk-Management Capability on Qualitative Construction Performance. Journal of Management in Engineering, 33(5), 04017019. Article 6 Vol: 33 Issues 5 Qazi, A., Quigley, J., Dickson, A., Kirytopoulos, K. (2016). Project Complexity and Risk Management (ProCRiM): Towards modelling project complexity driven risk paths in construction projects. International Journal of Project Management, 34(7), 1183-1198. Article 5 Doi: org/10.1016/j.ijproman.2016.05.008 Vol: 34 Issue: 7 Schaufelberger, J. E., Holm, L. (2017). Management of construction projects: a constructor's perspective. Taylor Francis. Retrieved from https://books.google.co.in/books?hl=enlr=id=8CklDwAAQBAJoi=fndpg=PP1dq=Schaufelberger,+J.+E.,+%26+Holm,+L.+(2017).+Management+of+construction+projects:+a+constructor%27s+perspective.+Taylor+%26+Francis.ots=2g-5a9Reh2sig=1DumZuu3AUwesdqRP_xhjrR6ofIredir_esc=y#v=onepageqf=false Zwikael, O., Ahn, M. (2011). The effectiveness of risk management: an analysis of project risk planning across industries and countries.Risk analysis,vol. 31(issue 1), 25-37.doi: 10.1111/j.1539-6924.2010.01470.x Article 4
Sunday, April 19, 2020
Introduction Human beings have always lived in groups and societies from the beginning of their existence on the planet. Being in groups and congregations fulfilled many basic human needs, such as, safety, cooperation in getting food, water or shelter. The presence of societies and groups also helped in getting approval from others. Humans like to interact with one another and be heard, accepted and followed.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Social computing in global businesses specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This human tendency and need for belonging to groups is what ignited the spark of social computing; the phenomenon will be the focus of this white paper. The establishment of societies, groups and interactions that connect many people online is just an imitation of human behaviour in the real world. The difference is that social computing uses IT and the internet as the main medium of communication rather t han face-to-face communication used in real life. During the course of this paper we will try to cover some information about social computing. We will discuss its meaning and definition; then we will briefly talk about its history and how it came to existence in its modern form. The different types of social computing applications and mediums will be mentioned and how they are used to create and promote interactions between people. The use of social computing for businesses takes a different path than the one used for personal interactions. For organisations to utilise social computing, they have to know the benefits they can gain from using such a powerful tool. The different benefits companies can get from using social computing will also be discussed. This will illustrate to the reader that it is not just individuals who can benefit from social computing, but businesses can also gain enormously from such tools. In order to show how some global businesses have used social computi ng, we will also include some examples of companies that are actively using social computing to improve their business practices. Focus will also be given to their communication strategies with all members of their value chain. Additionally, since we know that our audience is in the U.A.E., we will discuss how organisations and businesses in the United Arab Emirates can use the power of social computing to improve their profitability and their relationships with customers, suppliers, staff and all the other entities that they deal with. Definition of social computing Social computing started during the 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s with the recognition of the idea that computers are used for communication and not just for computation (McDonald 12). Social computing can be defined as Ã¢â¬Å"the shared and interactive aspect of online behaviourÃ¢â¬ (Rouse 30). Some of the major elements of social computing include blogs, wikis, instant messaging, Twitter, social networking, RSS, and social bookmar king sites (Rouse 9).Advertising Looking for essay on communications media? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Social computing is the practice of expanding the contacts of our business and/or social relations through creating connections with individuals. The supreme potential of the Internet promotes social computing through web-based groups created for that purpose. Social computing creates interconnected Internet communities that help persons to make contacts. Web sites dedicated to social computing are many, such as, Friendster, Linkedin, Spoke, and Tribe Networks, IBM and Microsoft. Social computing is a collection of technologies driving a remarkable evolution of the Web in growth and investment. Social computing is based on digital systems that support online social interaction. Social interactions can occur through email, sharing photos, and instant messaging. Such interactions are typically social for the reason that t hey are mainly about communicating with people. Also, there are other kinds of online social activities such as creating a web page, offering something on eBayÃ¢â ¢, following others on TwitterÃ¢â ¢, and editing in Wikipedia. These activities involve people that one may not know. Social computing is about how digital systems support social interactions. It engages people by providing communication mechanisms for interactions, chatting, sharing information, processing and displaying traces of online interfaces (McDonald 15). History of Social Computing Social computing has been around for quite some time. Some people may say that it dates back to the 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s. At that time, scientists and experts in IT started to realise that computers can be used for communication as well as computation. In 1961 Simon Ramo discussed the possibility of many people being connected together through the use of computers. He said Ã¢â¬Å"it is a degree of citizen participation unthinkable today.Ã ¢â¬ (Ramo 1) In 1968 a book written by Licklider and Taylor called Ã¢â¬Å"The Computer as a Communication DeviceÃ¢â¬ was published. The book spoke about the emergence of interactive communities that joined people from different geographical areas together. They had common interests and were using IT systems as their main method of communicating. Even though the discussion about using computer systems to connect people started in the early 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s, it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t until the 1970Ã¢â¬â¢s that computer-based communication had started. The earliest systems that utilized computers in communication between people included Emissary and Eis systems. They were used for what experts called computer conferencing. Furthermore, in the 1970Ã¢â¬â¢s the University of Illinois introduced PLATO Notes. Mailing lists were introduced for the first time ever on ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network). (Licklider and Taylor 2).Advertising We will write a custom essay sampl e on Social computing in global businesses specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More After these programs opened the door, the 1980Ã¢â¬â¢s saw an increase of IT systems that used computers to connect people. Social interactions through online text conversations increased, and bulletin boards emerged. Also the 80Ã¢â¬â¢s saw the introduction of Internet Relay Chat and USENET. USENET was started as an online community that users could utilise to communicate with each other. They could discuss different issues of mutual concern through posts and threads on topics. Another way of using computers for communication in the 1980Ã¢â¬â¢s was bulletin boards. They mimicked traditional bulletin boards used by people to post topics or issues of interest to different members of society. In the 1990Ã¢â¬â¢s advances continued in IT infrastructure, and so did developments in communication technology. The introduction of the web in the 90Ã¢â¬â¢s helped to advance social computing greatly. It caused a revolution by increasing connection speeds and bandwidths. Nonetheless, when the web first started, social interactions and communication between people were limited to content that people used to upload on webpages. Most of them shared links with other users; this is quite different from the social computing that exists today. Webpage uploads were the beginning of dramatic changes in the way people interacted with each other over extended geographical areas. Little regard would be given to distance or natural barriers in this platform. The internet actually made the idea of social computing in its current sense a reality. People didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have to be on the same local network or in the same area in order to interact and communicate with each other. In the late 1990Ã¢â¬â¢s and the beginning of the 21st century, IT systems became more capable of facilitating communication between people and entities in a way that used computation al power. Not only did this allow people to interact directly with each other, but it also fed results back into the system in a way that enriched social interactions. The systems became more tailor-made for individual users. An example of this application is feedback or suggestions that one gets when using search engines like Google, YouTube, Amazon or EBay. Nowadays social computing applications and functions are an essential part of almost any website. Businesses have recognized the importance of such applications and are using them very heavily to increase interactions with customers, suppliers and other members of the value chain. This increased dependency on social computing is causing these websites and applications to become an integral part of peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s daily lives.Advertising Looking for essay on communications media? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Types of social computing applications One of the types of social computing applications that create the above-mentioned benefits are web blogs. These are online journals in which an author or a series of authors publish material on particular topics. Content may be anything from cooking recipes, sports, business, politics, scientific work or entertainment. Blogs allow users to engage in discussions by either linking a particular blog in another forum or by making commentaries about a blogging topic. Businesses can utilise this application in order to capture knowledge about their industries. They may also have internal blogs that provide employees with a platform to make personal contributions (Fun Wagner 248). Wikis are applications that allow users to make contributions about particular topics from scratch through hypertext. It is a collaborative authoring tool which aggregates into an open source of information, such as Wikipedia. Users and administrators can provide quality co ntrol in order to increase reliability of this form of social computing. The mode of application is highly useful to enterprises because it allows them to share knowledge. Companies can discover new trends about their products or services. A business can also learn about stakeholder concerns, and thus improve its business operations. Peer to peer networks are applications that allow users to share multimedia content as well as storage and bandwidth. People often use them to share music and videos. This feature explains why many internet stakeholders have a bias against P2P networks since they facilitate copyright infringement. Nonetheless, a number of companies in the business industry have embraced these technologies as methods of distribution. P2P networks may also increase marketability of content when only short versions of a file are available for sharing. Customers may be prompted to purchase the original version of a file. Social networking websites are sites that join users to their contacts and acquaintances in an online community. Common sites include Facebook and twitter. Facebook allows one to invite others (who may or may not be strangers) to become friends with him in his online community. Businesses may use Facebook as an internal emailing system or as a promotional avenue for products and series. It can also strengthen business associations by building networks. Twitter is another social networking website that allows individuals to read short messages (tweets) and respond to them by following the user. Businesses can use this platform to stay in tune with industry trends, boost their networks, expose their brands, monitor their image, engage with facts and expand their consumer base (Rasmus Salkowitz 8). Video sharing websites such as YouTube are revolutionary social computing platforms as well. They allow entities to share clips about any matter they regard as important. This may range from sports, politics, music and many other issues. Busi nesses may make advertisements, explain product use or announce new corporate strategies through YouTube. The video element in this type of application makes it quite cutting edge and transforming. Photo sharing websites like Flicker allow members to upload, tag and view photos. In these websites, it is possible to get feedback from concerned members. Companies can harness these websites in order to promote some of their new offerings. They can increase their popularity through this avenue. Businesses may think of Flicker as an internet-based location for photographic posters. Social bookmarking services are similar to photo sharing applications because they also allow users to tag items. Here, social bookmarking services are only allowed for books, not photos. One well-known example is Delicious. In this application, users share links and give feedback about the most relevant one. Only communities with similar interests can belong to one social site. Peer to peer video and communic ation services may also be regarded as aspects of social computing. Skype is an example of such an application. It allows users to communicate in real time through video and audio. Businesses may utilise this mode of social computing in order to facilitate that personal touch with clients. Customers can also give reviews about products through Skype, and this may enhance business outcomes. Benefits of social computing Communication Enterprise social computing facilitates communication in companies. Knowledge can flow across boundaries, hierarchies and information silos in social media. Members of an organisation can access a place where they can engage in informal conversations. Improvements made from fast communication often translate into higher production. For instance firms can launch products at very fast rates if operational teams are always in constant communication with marketing and procurement teams. In the past, many companies used knowledge management solutions to improv e communication. Social computing provides an edge over older communication solutions because it deals with new knowledge. Knowledge management was confined to the conveyance of existing knowledge. Many of these platforms stored old and outdated material that lacked relevance to workersÃ¢â¬â¢ daily activities. Social computing sustains the ever-changing stream of enterprise knowledge. Not only does social computing increase communication rates, it also enhances the quality of communication. Social media tools allow companies to preserve memory within their structures. Since business environments are changing rapidly, then companies need to capture knowledge as soon as it develops. To increase usefulness of information, people need to know the context and content of the material. Social tools make this quality a reality by preserving knowledge at a rate that equals its dissemination. Finance or business outcomes Financial benefits of enterprise social computing come from improved r eturns. Social tools allow companies to discover emerging opportunities in their business processes and practices. Organisations can discern opportunities for innovation when they use social software appropriately. Such opportunities lead them to develop innovations frequently. Social media tools help firms to manage, analyse, track and find gaps that can then be leveraged (Bughin et al. 5). Many companies may fail to achieve financial results from social software because their primary focus is adoption rather than operational efficiency. Firms that demonstrate success in social computing tend to dwell on tangible aspects of operation. They identify challenges in operations and then use social media to tackle those problems. In fact, this focus on outcomes is what helps many organisations to overcome scepticism against the technologies. Employees who witness increases in performance metrics will see the use of social software and will continue to use it. Consequently, companies will continue to generate more financial revenue. Staff improvement Employees that embrace social media can identify experts easily, and thus solve problems easily. They can use online community networks such as Socialcast to meet with their peers. The latter is a micro blog that assists sales persons to correspond with members of the sales industry. Users of enterprise social computing can thus consult other people about problems that may be new to them (Miller et al. 15). Enterprise social media differs from other traditional methods of information seeking because it is transparent and saves time. One may look for answers by searching for previous discussions on the same. However, if no one has ever posted such information, then the concerned person can be the first one to do so. This ability to identify experts easily makes social computing quite advantageous to organisations. Marketing Most people often think of social computing in this sense. Companies use social networking website s in order to market themselves either directly or indirectly. Some of them may inform customers about product or service updates. Others may educate customers about various ways of using their products. They can build relationships with clients by conversing with them. Alternatively, organisations can use social media to build brands. Businesses also get to familiarise themselves with particular trends, which gives them a competitive edge. Twitter is especially useful in this area because firms can monitor the pulse of their visibility (Dachis Group 11). Examples of successful use of social computing As discussed earlier, social computing leads to staff improvement. A company that demonstrated these abilities was IPC Inc. It is a healthcare institution that used social software to harness distributed knowledge. Physicians in this company faced daily challenges that were new to them. Many of these professionals used social software to contact other physicians. Through this avenue, t hey could converse about clinical matters or patient challenges. Their version of social software provided them with access to about 1000 doctors in real time. If a physician had to make a critical decision about a certain patient, and was uncertain about it, all he had to do was communicate with the other physicians. The hospital improved its response times as well as its quality of care. Besides, it led to greater physician satisfaction because doctors were not working alone (Miller et al. 19). Some companies embrace social software in order to increase business performance or boost financial revenue. One organisation that enjoyed this reward was OSIsoft. The company identified a challenge that social networking could solve; poor problem resolution. Prior to implementation of enterprise social computing, the customer support department was unable to respond quickly and accurately to customer inquiries. This minimised customer satisfaction and hence business outcomes. After the ado ption of social software, OSIsoft easily accessed experts based on relevant topics. Customer support staff could also engage in ongoing discussions with engineers about technical issues that customers needed to know. All learning was documented through wiki articles. Some of the information came from call logs while others stemmed from experts. Employees took on the responsibility of creating knowledge as it was not just a duty assigned to a small team. In the end, problem resolution improved dramatically. Customers were satisfied and this increased the amount of business they brought to the company. OSIsoft reaped tangible financial results because of social media use (Miller et al. 27). Most firms utilise social computing in order to boost their marketing strategies. In fact, when one talks about social technology, most people will automatically think about Twitter and Facebook. While consumer driven applications are vital in organisations, deeper analyses of collaborative tools n eed to be done (OÃ¢â¬â¢Driscoll 29). However, it is still necessary to look at case studies of companies that harnessed these consumer-driven technologies. One company that demonstrated the power of social networking in marketing was Toyota. In 2010, the company had quality control issues with their automobiles. They needed to recall a vast number of units, and this took a toll on their brand image. The company decided to target social networking website users in order to minimise this damage. At any one time, there were almost a dozen Toyota employees monitoring Facebook and other social networking websites for commentaries about the company. The workers would respond to complaints and comments as soon as they arose thus ensuring that Toyota would not fall prey to negative publicity. After about 6 months, not only had the firm managed to salvage its reputation, but it expanded its Facebook fan base by about ten percent (Messinger et al. 190). Therefore, social computing allows co mpanies to target consumers directly concerning various aspects of marketing, such as, branding. Educational institutions have also used social computing to improve marketing performance. One such entity was Phoenix University. It has several online programs that it offers students all around the world. In order to enhance their experience, the institution created documentaries that talk about the institutional rules and regulations. Furthermore, the firm needed to reach a vast pool of potential clients. It did this by publishing reviews and video testimonials on YouTube. These allowed interested individuals to access information at their fingertips. Furthermore, it placed the firm at the top of search results about online tertiary institutions (Messinger et al. 220). Retail organisations can also use social computing in order to learn about and meet client needs. Best Buy is an example of a company that successfully did this. It asked Facebook members about their best vampire movie s. The company acted on those responses by placing all the popular ones on sale. As such, Best Buy demonstrated that social computing can be a low-cost strategy of getting feedback from customers. This enables firms to meet their needs directly and more effectively. Aside from the marketing function, some firms have used social computing in order to facilitate communication. As Peter Kim explains in a YouTube video on the power of people, a certain restaurant in Texas utilised its Facebook page as a platform for strengthening its ties with staff members. The area in which the restaurant was located was burnt by a huge fire. Many of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s employees lost their belongings and homes as a result. Employees used the restaurantÃ¢â¬â¢s Facebook page to air out their grievances. It was a place where they could get solace from colleagues. The organisation leveraged on social computing to enhance its business-to-employee relationship (Kim). How to use social computing to impro ve business practices in UAE Social computing can revolutionise the way companies carry out businesses in the UAE. It is not enough for companies to use social media in order to market new products or reach new clientele; firms need to create sustained value through this phenomenon. UAE companies need to use social computing to develop their business in all realms; that is, in supplies, human resources, operations, marketing and public relations (Dachis Group 5). Firms in this country need to apply the concept when dealing with collaboration between two or more employees. They should also embrace it when optimising their supply chains. Social computing can also lead to better business to customer engagement. The phenomenon can contribute to organisational strategy in the area of connections, analytics, culture and even content exchanges. Companies in the UAE need to realise that social computing will cause them to harness market trends that can drive their business models into the f uture (Parameswaran Whinston 765). Employees and consumers have altered their power over brands as well as IT processes. Workers are using social computing to get past the chain of command inherent in previous technological tools or processes. Customers are taking control of how their brands are perceived, so organisations in the UAE need to embrace this business-transforming idea (IBM 8). In order to understand how social computing will gain relevance in the UAE business climate, firms need to demonstrate certain features after its adoption. Social business can assist firms in becoming engaged. They will become deeply connected to employees, partners, and most importantly, customers. As a result, most of these organisations will become more efficient and productive. Social computing will also increase transparency in an organisation by elimination of boundaries that may exist in a company. Sometimes these boundaries can prevent a business from sharing information or utilising cert ain assets. Lack of transparency may also minimise access to experts, social computing would eradicate that problem. Social business would also improve business practices in the UAE by eliminating boundaries in the above mentioned areas. Companies will also increase their rates of doing business if they take on social computing. They can anticipate problems and address them early on. Firms can also harness new opportunities that will give them an edge over their competitors (Schwartz 1). Social computing enables businesses to capture knowledge, and hence boost their financial outcomes. For UAE organisations to compete favourably, they need to harness as much information as possible. However, the business climate in the country has changed; a lot of companies exist and transactions take place virtually. This calls for a different approach to harnessing knowledge from stakeholders in order to boost a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s competiveness (Schwartz 1). Social computing can improve communicati on within UAE organisations and outside. Companies can reach their customers, suppliers and partners in real time in order to have conversations with them. Workers can share ideas and insights about certain challenges and thus boost organisational outcomes. Furthermore, the phenomenon will also assist UAE firms in improving staff performance. First organisations can attract appropriate talent through collaborative media. They can also retain talent by allowing their staff to mix work priorities with social needs. This creates a community that has high levels of organisational loyalty. Perhaps one of the most direct and obvious benefits of social computing is strengthening marketing efforts in the UAE. These applications will allow companies to reach customers in new and exciting ways. They will facilitate relationship marketing and also expand consumer pools (Parameswaran Whinston 765). Conclusion Social computing empowers businesses to increase creativity, organise business strate gies and strengthen social interactions. This means that they can reach new clients, facilitate better internal communication, keep up with industry trends, increase business outcomes (financial returns), strengthen employee commitment and communicate with partners more easily. Social computing leads to better financial, human resource, marketing and communication outcomes. Works Cited Bughin, Jacques, Angela Byers Michael Chui. How social technologies are extending the organisation. Nov. 2011. Web.. Ã¢â¬ ¹http://www.mckinseyquarterly.com/High_Tech/Strategy_Analysis/How_social_technologies_are_extending_the_organization_2888Ã¢â¬ º Dachis Group. The definition of social business. June 2012. Web. Ã¢â¬ ¹http://www.dachisgroup.com/2012/06/the-definition-of-social-business/Ã¢â¬ º Fun, Rachael Christian Wagner. Ã¢â¬Å"Weblogging: A study of social computing and its impact on organisationsÃ¢â¬ . IT and value creation 45.2(2008): 242-250. Print. IBM. IBM social business. 2012. Web.. Ã¢â¬ ¹http://www.ibm.com/smarterplanet/us/en/socialbusiness/overview/index.htmlÃ¢â¬ º Kim, Peter. The power of people. 2012. Web.. Ã¢â¬ ¹https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VIMR3uHMWz4Ã¢â¬ º Licklider, Jack Taylor Robert. The computer as a communication device 1968. Web.. Ã¢â¬ ¹http://www.comunicazione.uniroma1.it/materiali/20.20.03_licklider-taylor.pdf. Ã¢â¬ º McDonald, David. Social Computing, 2011. Web. Ã¢â¬ ¹http://www.interaction-design.org/encyclopedia/social_computing.htmlÃ¢â¬ º Messinger, Paul, Eleni Stroulia, Kelly Lyons, Michael Bone, Run Niu, Kristen Smirnov, Stephen Perelgut. Ã¢â¬Å"Virtual worlds Ã¢â¬â past, present and future: new directions in social computing.Ã¢â¬ Online communities and social network 47.3(2009): 204-228. Print. Miller. Megan, Aliza Marks Marcelus DeCoulode. Social software for business performance.2011. PDF file. Web.. Ã¢â¬ ¹http://www.deloitte.com/assets/Dcom-UnitedStates/Local%20Assets/Documents/TMT_us_tmt/us_tmt_%20Social%20Softwar e%20for%20Business_031011.pdfÃ¢â¬ º OÃ¢â¬â¢Driscoll, Tony. Ã¢â¬Å"Transforming collaboration with social tools.Ã¢â¬ Technology Forecast 3: 1-68. 2011. Web. Parameswaran, Manoj Andrew Whinston. Ã¢â¬Å"Social computing: an overview.Ã¢â¬ Communications of the Association for Information Systems 19(2007): 762-780. Print. Ramo, Simon. Teaching machines and programmed learning: a source book. Washington, DC: NEA, 1961. Print. Rasmus, Daniel Rob Salkowitz. Social computing in the enterprise 2009. PDF file. 22 Jun. 2012 Ã¢â¬ ¹http://download.microsoft.com/download/8/3/A/83A83256-4BC7-4512-9C73-2B6AB50F144E/Social_Computing_in_the_Enterprise.pdfÃ¢â¬ º Rouse, M. Social computing. 2010. Web.. Ã¢â¬ ¹http://searchwinit.techtarget.com/definition/social-computing-SoCÃ¢â¬ º Schwartz, Jonathan. Ã¢â¬Å"If you want to lead, Blog.Ã¢â¬ Harvard Business Review Nov. 2005: 1. Print. This essay on Social computing in global businesses was written and submitted by user Malice to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Sunday, March 15, 2020
Aristophanes the Ancient Greek Comedy Writer Aristophanes is important today because his work is still relevant. People still laugh at modern performances of his comedies. In particular, his famous womens sex strike for peace comedy, Lysistrata, continues to resonate. Pronunciation:Ã /Ã ¦.rÃ ª.sta.fÃâ¢.niz/ Examples:Ã In AristophanesÃ Frogs, Dionysus, like Hercules before him, goes to the Underworld to bring back Euripides. The Old Comedy Old Comedy had been performed for 60 years prior to Aristophanes. In his time, as his work shows, Old Comedy was changing. It was bawdy and topically political, taking license with living people in the public eye. Ordinary humans played the most heroic characters. Gods and heroes could play buffoons. His style of Old Comedy is described as over-the-top, more like Animal House than How I Met Your Mother. The latter has a lineage that could be traced to an important comedy genre that came after Aristophanes. This was New Comedy, the stock character-filled comedy of manners, written by the Greek Menander and his Roman imitators. To be more completely accurate, New Comedy followed Middle Comedy, a little-known genre to which Aristophanes contributed at the end of his career. Aristophanes wrote comedies from 427-386 B.C., which gives us approximate dates for his life: (c. 448-385 B.C.). Unfortunately, we know very little about him, although he lived in Athens during periods of turmoil, beginning his writing career after the death of Pericles, during the Peloponnesian War. In A Handbook of Greek Literature, H.J. Rose says his father was named Philippos. Rose calls Aristophanes a member of the Athenian conservative party. Aristophanes Makes Fun of Socrates Aristophanes knew Socrates and poked fun at him in The Clouds, as an example of a sophist. From the other side, Aristophanes appears in Platos Symposium, comically hiccuping before he comes up with an inspired explanation for why there are are people with different sexual orientations. Of more than 40 plays written by Aristophanes, 11 survive. He won prizes at least six times but not all firsts four at the Lenaea (held roughly, in January), where comedy was added to the events in about 440 B.C., and two at the City Dionysia (roughly, in March), where only tragedy had been performed until about 486 B.C. While Aristophanes produced most of his own plays, he did not initially do so. Not until the Acharnians, a pro-peace play and one of those featuring the character of the great tragedian Euripides, won a prize at the Lenaea, in 425, did he start producing. His previous two plays, the Banqueteers, and the Babylonians do not survive. The Knights (Lenaea of 424), an attack on the political figure Cleon, and Frogs (Lenaia of 405), which also features the character of Euripides in a contest with Aeschylus, also won first prize. The generally irreverent, creative Aristophanes made fun of the gods and of real people. His portrayal of Socrates in The Clouds has been criticized for contributing to the atmosphere that condemned Socrates since he portrays Socrates as a ridiculous sophist teaching the morally worthless topics of philosophy for money. Old Comedy Structure A typical structure for Aristophanes Old Comedy would be prologue, parados, agon, parabasis, episodes, and Exodus, with a chorus of 24. Actors wore masks and had padding front and back. Costumes might include giant phalluses. He used equipment like the mechane or crane and the ekkyklema or platform. He made up long, complicated, compound words where appropriate, like cloudcuckooland. Surviving Comedies by Aristophanes The AcharniansThe BirdsThe CloudsThe EcclesiazusaeThe FrogsThe KnightsLysistrataPeacePlutusThe ThesmophoriazusaeThe Wasps
Thursday, February 27, 2020
Management and Financial Accounting - Essay Example The management account is a system of Accounting which deals with the information that is useful to the managers and employees with in the organization. Information of M A can be money or non money process. It helps in Management of plan, control and decision making process. It does not require any kind of legal requirement. In simpler words MA is useful in the assistance of planning, controlling, decision making and motivation. On the other hand financial accounting deals with the reporting of the official accounts on demand of the shareholder, government agencies and other parties external to the firm. FA deals with the accounts, records and the performance of the firm over a considered period. FA is limited to some companies and FA must be prepared by law. They are to be produced every year. FA mostly deals with money. It should operate with in the framework determined by law and IASS. FA represents the historic picture of the past operations. Preparing of these accounts gave birt h to the some other standard boards under the authorities of the previous standard boards and the government authorities and the main aim of such standard boards is to build up a firm in which such standards are introduced which are useful all over the world and their principle is to from such standards which are useful all over the world and useful for education and, implementing in the calculation of accounts in the multi nationals. And they hope and try their best to create an international standard so compatible that no other firm can be compared with it.